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Tracking State Changes in Procedural Text: a Challenge Dataset and Models for Process Paragraph Comprehension

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Abstract

We present a new dataset and models for comprehending paragraphs about processes (e.g., photosynthesis), an important genre of text describing a dynamic world. The new dataset, ProPara, is the first to contain natural (rather than machine-generated) text about a changing world along with a full annotation of entity states (location and existence) during those changes (81k datapoints). The end-task, tracking the location and existence of entities through the text, is challenging because the causal effects of actions are often implicit and need to be inferred. We find that previous models that have worked well on synthetic data achieve only mediocre performance on ProPara, and introduce two new neural models that exploit alternative mechanisms for state prediction, in particular using LSTM input encoding and span prediction. The new models improve accuracy by up to 19%. We are releasing the ProPara dataset and our models to the community.

1 Introduction

Building a reading comprehension (RC) system that is able to read a text document and to answer questions accordingly has been a long-standing goal in NLP and AI research. Impressive progress has been made in factoid-style reading comprehension, e.g., (Seo et al., 2017a; Clark and Gardner, 2017) , enabled by well-designed datasets and modern neural network models. However, these models still struggle with questions that require inference (Jia and Liang, 2017) .

Consider the paragraph in Figure 1 about photosynthesis. While top systems on SQuAD (Rajpurkar et al., 2016 ) can reliably answer lookup questions such as: Q1: What do the roots absorb? (A: water, minerals) they struggle when answers are not explicit, e.g., Q2: Where is sugar produced? (A: in the leaf) 1 Chloroplasts in the leaf of the plant trap light from the sun. The roots absorb water and minerals from the soil. This combination of water and minerals flows from the stem into the leaf. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf. Light, water and minerals, and the carbon dioxide all combine into a mixture. This mixture forms sugar (glucose) which is what the plant eats.

Figure 1: A paragraph from ProPara about photosynthesis (bold added, to highlight question and answer elements). Processes are challenging because questions (e.g., the one shown here) often require inference about the process states.

Q: Where is sugar produced? A: in the leaf Figure 1 : A paragraph from ProPara about photosynthesis (bold added, to highlight question and answer elements). Processes are challenging because questions (e.g., the one shown here) often require inference about the process states.

To answer Q2, it appears that a system needs knowledge of the world and the ability to reason with state transitions in multiple sentences: If carbon dioxide enters the leaf (stated), then it will be at the leaf (unstated), and as it is then used to produce sugar, the sugar production will be at the leaf too.

This challenge of modeling and reasoning with a changing world is particularly pertinent in text about processes, demonstrated by the paragraph in Figure 1 . Understanding what is happening in such texts is important for many tasks, e.g., procedure execution and validation, effect prediction. However, it is also difficult because the world state is changing, and the causal effects of actions on that state are often implicit.

To address this challenging style of reading comprehension problem, researchers have created several datasets. The bAbI dataset (Weston et al., 2015) includes questions about objects moved throughout a paragraph, using machine-generated language over a deterministic domain with a small lexicon. The SCoNE dataset (Long et al., 2016) contains paragraphs describing a changing world state in three synthetic, deterministic domains, and Figure 2 : A (simplified) annotated paragraph from ProPara. Each filled row shows the existence and location of participants between each step ("?" denotes "unknown", "-" denotes "does not exist"). For example in state0, water is located at the soil.

Figure 2: A (simplified) annotated paragraph from ProPara. Each filled row shows the existence and location of participants between each step (“?” denotes “unknown”, “-” denotes “does not exist”). For example in state0, water is located at the soil.

assumes that a complete and correct model of the initial state is given for each task. However, approaches developed using synthetic data often fail to handle the inherent complexity in language when applied to organic, real-world data (Hermann et al., 2015; Winograd, 1972) .

In this work, we create a new dataset, ProPara (Process Paragraphs), containing 488 humanauthored paragraphs of procedural text, along with 81k annotations about the changing states (existence and location) of entities in those paragraphs, with an end-task of predicting location and existence changes that occur. This is the first dataset containing annotated, natural text for real-world processes, along with a simple representation of entity states during those processes. A simplified example is shown in Figure 2 .

When applying existing state-of-the-art systems, such as Recurrent Entity Networks (Henaff et al., 2016) and Query-reduction Networks (Seo et al., 2017b) , we find that they do not perform well on ProPara and the results are only slightly better than the majority baselines. As a step forward, we propose two new neural models that use alternative mechanisms for state prediction and propagation, in particular using LSTM input encoding and span prediction. The new models improve accuracy by up to 19%.

Our contributions in this work are twofold: (1) we create ProPara, a new dataset for process paragraph comprehension, containing annotated, natural language paragraphs about real-world processes, and (2) we propose two new models that learn to infer and propagate entity states in novel ways, and outperform existing methods on this dataset.

2 Related Work

Datasets: Large-scale reading comprehension datasets, e.g., SQuAD (Rajpurkar et al., 2016) , TriviaQA (Joshi et al., 2017) , have successfully driven progress in question answering, but largely targeting explicitly stated facts. Often, the resulting systems can be fooled (Jia and Liang, 2017) , prompting efforts to create harder datasets where a deeper understanding of the text appears necessary (Welbl et al., 2017; Araki et al., 2016) .

Procedural text is a genre that is particularly challenging, because the worlds they describe are largely implicit and changing. While there are few large datasets in this genre, two exceptions are bAbI (Weston et al., 2015) and SCoNE (Long et al., 2016) , described earlier 2 . bAbI has helped advance methods for reasoning over text, such as memory network architectures (Weston et al., 2014) , but has also been criticized for using machine-generated text over a simulated domain. SCoNE is closer to our goal, but has a different task (given a perfect world model of the initial state, predict the end state) and different motivation (handling ellipsis and coreference in context). It also used a deterministic, simulated world to generate data. Models: For answering questions about procedural text, early systems attempted to extract a process structure (events, arguments, relations) from the paragraph, e.g., ProRead (Berant et al., 2014) and for newswire (Caselli et al., 2017) . This allowed questions about event ordering to be answered, but not about state changes, unmodelled by these approaches.

More recently, several neural systems have been developed to answer questions about the world state after a process, inspired in part by the bAbI dataset. Building on the general Memory Network architecture (Weston et al., 2014) and gated recurrent models such as GRU (Cho et al., 2014) , Recurrent Entity Networks (EntNet) (Henaff et al., 2016 ) is a state-of-the-art method for bAbI. EntNet uses a dynamic memory of hidden states (memory blocks) to maintain a representation of the world state, with a gated update at each step. Memory keys can be preset ("tied") to particular entities in the text, to encourage the memories to record information about those entities. Similarly, Query Reduction Networks (QRN) (Seo et al., 2017b) tracks state in a paragraph, represented as a hidden vector h. QRN performs gated propagation of h across each timestep (corresponding to a state update), and uses h to modify ("reduce") the query to keep pointing to the answer at each step (e.g., "Where is the apple?" at step 1 might be modified to "Where is Joe?" at step 2 if Joe picks up the apple). A recent proposal, Neural Process Networks (NPN) (Bosselut et al., 2018) , also models each entity's state as a vector (analogous to EntNet's tied memories). NPN computes the state change at each step from the step's predicted action and affected entity(s), then updates the entity(s) vectors accordingly, but does not model different effects on different entities by the same action.

Both EntNet and QRN find a final answer by decoding the final vector(s) into a vocabulary entry via softmax classification. In contrast, many of the best performing factoid QA systems, e.g., (Seo et al., 2017a; Clark and Gardner, 2017) , return an answer by finding a span of the original paragraph using attention-based span prediction, a method suitable when there is a large vocabulary. We combine this span prediction approach with state propagation in our new models.

3 The Propara Dataset

Task: Our dataset, ProPara, focuses on a particular genre of procedural text, namely simple scientific processes (e.g., photosynthesis, erosion). A system that understands a process paragraph should be able to answer questions such as: "What are the inputs to the process?", "What is converted into what?", and "Where does the conversion take place?" 3 Many of these questions reduce to understanding the basic dynamics of entities in the process, and we use this as our task: Given a process paragraph and an entity e mentioned in it, identify:

(1) Is e created (destroyed, moved) in the process?

(2) When (step #) is e created (destroyed, moved)?

(3) Where is e created (destroyed, moved from/to)? If we can track the entities' states through the process and answer such questions, many of the higherlevel questions can be answered too. To do this, we now describe how these states are representated in ProPara, and how the dataset was built.

Process State Representation: The states of the world throughout the whole process are represented as a grid. Each column denotes a participant entity (a span in the paragraph, typically a noun phrase) that undergoes some creation, destruction, or movement in the process. Each row denotes the states of all the participants after a step. Each sentence is a step that may change the state of one or more participants. Therefore, a process paragraph with m sentences and n participants will result in an (m + 1) × n grid representation. Each cell l i j in this grid records the location of the j-th participant after the i-th step, and l 0 j stores the location of j-th participant before the process. 4 Figure 2 shows one example of this representation.

Paragraph Authoring: To collect paragraphs, we first generated a list of 200 process-evoking prompts, such as "What happens during photosynthesis?", by instantiating five patterns 5 , with nouns of the corresponding type from a science vocabulary, followed by manual rewording. Then, crowdsourcing (MTurk) workers were shown one of the prompts and asked to write a sequence of event sentences describing the process. Each prompt was given to five annotators to produce five (independent) paragraphs. Short paragraphs (4 or less sentences) were then removed for a final total of 488 paragraphs describing 183 processes. An example paragraph is the one shown earlier in Figure 1 .

Grid And Existence:

Once the process paragraphs were authored, we asked expert annotators 6 to create the initial grids. First, for each paragraph, they listed the participant entities that underwent a state change during the process, thus creating the column headers. They then marked the steps where a participant was created or destroyed. All state cells before a Create or after a Destroy marker were labeled as "not exists". Each initial grid annotation was checked by a second expert annotator.

Locations: Finally, MTurk workers were asked to fill in all the location cells. A location can be "unknown" if it is not specified in the text, or a span of the original paragraph. Five grids for the same paragraph were completed by five different Turkers, with average pairwise inter-annotator agreement of 0.67. The end result was 81,345 annotations over 488 paragraphs about 183 processes. The dataset was then split 80/10/10 into train/dev/test by process prompt, ensuring that the test paragraphs were all about processes unseen in train and dev. Table 1 compares our dataset with bAbI and SCoNE.

Table 1: ProPara vs. other procedural datasets.

4 Models

We present two new models for this task. The first, ProLocal, makes local state predictions and then algorithmically propagates them through the process. The second, ProGlobal, is an end-to-end neural model that makes all state predictions using global information.

4.1 Prolocal: A Local Prediction Model

The design of ProLocal consists of two main components: local prediction and commonsense persistence. The former infers all direct effects of individual sentences and the latter algorithmically propagates known values forwards and backwards to fill in any remaining unknown states.

4.1.1 Local Prediction

The intuition for local prediction is to treat it as a surface-level QA task. BiLSTMs with span prediction have been effective at answering surface-level questions, e.g., Given "Roots absorb water." and "Where is the water?", they can be reliably trained to answer "Roots" (Seo et al., 2017a) . We incorporate a similar mechanism here. Given a sentence (step) and a participant e in it, the local prediction model makes two types of predictions: the change type of e (one of: no change, created, destroyed, moved) and the locations of e before and after this step. The change type prediction is a multi-class classification problem, while the location prediction is viewed as a SQuAD-style surface-level QA task with the goal to find a location span in the input sentence. The design of this model is depicted in Figure 3 (a), which adapts a bidirectional LSTM (Hochreiter and Schmidhuber, 1997 ) recurrent neural network architecture (biLSTM) with attention for input encoding. The prediction tasks are handled by two different output layers. We give the detail of these layers below.

Figure 3: (a) ProLocal uses bidirectional attention to make local predictions about state change type and location (left), and then (b) propagates those changes globally using a persistence rule (right, shown for a single participant (the Light), local predictions shown in blue, propagations via persistence in green).

Input Encoding: Each word w i in the input sentence is encoded with a vector

x i = [v w : v e : v v

], the concatenation of a pre-trained GloVe (Pennington et al., 2014) word embedding v w , indicator variables v e on whether w i is the specified participant and v v on whether w i is a verb (via a POS tagger).

Context Encoding: A biLSTM is used to contextualize the word representations in a given sentence. h i denotes the concatenated output of the bidirectional LSTM for the embedded word x i , and encodes the word's meaning in context.

Bilinear Attention: Given the participant and verb, the role of this layer is to identify which contextual word embeddings to attend to for generating the output. We first create h ev by concatenating the contextual embedding of the participant and verb. 7 We then use a bilinear similarity function sim(h i , h ev ) = (h T i * B * h ev ) + b, similar to (Chen et al., 2016) , to compute attention weights A i over each word w i in the sentence.

For state change type prediction, the words between the verb and participant may be important, while for the location tagging, contextual cues such as "from" and "to" could be more predictive. Hence, we train two sets of attention parameters resulting in weights A 1 and A 2 which are combined with the contextual vectors h i as described below to produce hidden states o 1 and o 2 that are fed to the output layers. Here, |step| refers to number of words in the given step or sentence.

o 1 = i A 1i * h i o 2 = [(A 21 * h 1 ) : (A 22 * h 2 ) : . . . : (A 2|step| * h |step| )]

Output 1: State Change Type: We apply a feed-forward network on hidden state o 1 to derive the probabilities of the four state change type categories: Create, Destroy, Move and None.

Output 2: Location Spans: The second output is computed by predicting BIO tags (one of five tags: B-Before-LOC, I-Before-LOC, B-After-LOC, I-After-LOC, O) for each word in the sentence. We apply a feed-forward network on hidden state o 2i for word i to derive the probabilities of these location tags. Notice that if the change type is predicted as "Create" (or "Destroy") then only the "after" (or "before") location prediction is used.

Training: We train the state change type prediction and location tag prediction models jointly, where the loss is the sum of their negative log likelihood losses. We use Adadelta (Zeiler, 2012) with learning rate 0.2 to minimize the total loss.

4.1.2 Commonsense Persistence

The local prediction model will partially fill in the state change grid, showing the direct locational effects of actions (including "not exists" and "unknown location"). To complete the grid, we then algorithmically apply a commonsense rule of persistence that propagates locations forwards and backwards in time where locations are otherwise missing. Figure 3(b) shows an example when applying this rule, where '?' indicates "unknown location". This corresponds to a rule of inertia: things are by default unchanged unless told otherwise. If there is a clash, then the location is predicted as unknown.

4.2 Proglobal: A Global Prediction Model

Unlike ProLocal, the design principle behind ProGlobal is to model the persistence of state information within the neural model itself, rather than as a post-processing step. ProGlobal infers the states of all participants at each step, even if they are not mentioned in the current sentence, using: (1) the global context (i.e., previous sentences), and (2) the participant's state from the previous step. Given a sentence (step) with its context (paragraph) and a participant e, ProGlobal predicts the existence and location of e after this step in two stages. It first determines the state of e as one of the classes ("not exist", "unknown location", "known location"). A follow-up location span prediction is made if the state is classified as "known location". Figure 4 shows ProGlobal's neural architecture, where the left side is the part for state prediction at each step, and the right side depicts the propagation of hidden states from one step to the next. We discuss the detail of this model below.

Figure 4: ProGlobal predicts a participant’s state (type and location) after a given step using bilinear attention over the entire paragraph, combined with its predictions from the previous step.

Input Encoding:

Given a participant e, for each step i , we take the entire paragraph as input. Each word w in the paragraph is represented with three types of embeddings: the general word embedding v w , a position embedding v d which indicates the relative distance to the participant in the paragraph, and a sentence indicator embedding v s which shows the relative position (previous, current, following) of each sentence in terms of the current step i. Both the position embedding and the sentence indicator embedding are of size 50 and are randomly initialized and automatically trained by the model. We concatenate these three types of embeddings to represent each word

x = [v w : v d : v s ].

Context Encoding: Similar to ProLocal, we use a biLSTM to encode the whole paragraph and usẽ h to denote the biLSTM output for each word.

State Prediction: As discussed earlier, we first predict the location state of a participant e. Let Step 1

Embedding

State 0

State 2

Encoder

Step 1 Embedding State 1

Step 2

Step n Embedding State n Encoder Roots,-2,C absorb,-1,C water,0,C from,1,C the,2,C soil,3,C .4,C The,5,F water,6,F flows,7,F to,8,F the,9,F leaf,10,F … Figure 4 : ProGlobal predicts a participant's state (type and location) after a given step using bilinear attention over the entire paragraph, combined with its predictions from the previous step.

Contextual Embedding

Linear Predic9on

s i-1,i S i-i,2 S i-1,

Concatena9On

Span Probs Figure 5 : Details of the LSTM+Softmax unit, used for predicting the start/end words of a location.

Figure 5: Details of the LSTM+Softmax unit, used for predicting the start/end words of a location.

H P i = [h 1 i ,h 2 i , ...,h |P| i ]

denote the hidden vectors (contextual embeddings) for words in step i with respect to participant e, where h t i denotes the t-th word representation output by the biLSTM layer and P is the whole paragraph. We then apply max pooling to derive a paragraph representation: µ P i = max(H P i ). To incorporate the category prediction of the previous step, step i−1 , we concatenate its probability vector c P i−1 ∈ R 3 with µ P i , and apply a feed-forward network to derive the probabilities of the three categories:

c P i = softmax(W c • [µ P i : c P i−1 ] + b c )

Location Span Prediction: ( Figure 5 ). To predict the location span, we predict the start word of the span (by generating a probability distribution over words) and the end word. To predict the location start, we take two types of information as input: the start probability distribution s P i−1 ∈ R |P| predicted from step i−1 , and the contextual embeddingsH P i of words in the current step i :

H * i = |P| t=1 s t i−1 •H t i ϕ t i = LSTM([H t i :H * i ]) whereH *

i is a sum of word vectors in the paragraph, weighted by the start probabilities from the previous step step i−1 . ϕ t i is the encoded vector representation for the t-th word in the paragraph. We then concatenateH P i and ϕ P i , and apply a feed-forward network to obtain the start probability distribution for step i :

s P i = softmax(W s • [H P i : ϕ P i ] + b s )

. Similarly, to predict the end word of the span, we use the start probability distribution s P i of step i and H P i , and apply another LSTM and feed-forward networks to obtain the probabilities. For state 0 (the initial location before any steps), we directly feed the sequence of the vectors from the encoding layer to a linear transformation to predict the location start, and apply the same architecture to predict the location end. Training: For each participant e of paragraph P, the objective is to optimize the sum of the negative log likelihood of the category classification and location span prediction 8 . We use Adadelta to optimize the models with learning rate 0.5.

5.1 Tasks & Evaluation Metrics

As described in Section 3, the quality of a model is evaluated based on its ability to answer three categories of questions, with respect to a given participant e: (Cat-1) Is e created (destroyed, moved) in the process? (Cat-2) When (step#) is e created (destroyed, moved)? (Cat-3) Where is e created (destroyed, moved from/to)? These questions are answered by simple scans over the state predictions for the whole process. (Cat-1) is asked over all participants, while (Cat-2) and (Cat-3) are asked over just those participants that were created (destroyed, moved). The accuracy of the answers is used as the evaluation metric, except for questions that may have multiple answers (e.g., "When is e moved?"). In this case, we compare the predicted and gold answers and use the F 1 score as the "accuracy" of the answer set prediction. 9 For questions in category 3, an answer is considered correct if the predicted location is identical to, or a sub-phrase of, the labeled location (typically just one or two words), after stop-word removal and lemmatizing.

5.2 Baseline Methods

We compare our models with two top methods inspired by the bAbI dataset, Recurrent Entity Networks (EntNet) and Query Reduction Networks (QRN), described earlier in Section 2. Both models make different use of gated hidden states to propagate state information through time, and generate answers using softmax. The detailed comparisons in their design are shown in Table 2 .

Table 2: Design decisions in the four neural models.

We use the released implementations 10 (with default hyper-parameter values), and retrained them on our dataset, adapted to the standard bAbI QA format. Specifically, we create three separate variations of data by adding three bAbI-style questions after each step in a paragraph, respectively: Q1. "Does e exist?" (yes/no) Q2. "Is the location of e known?" (yes/no) Q3. "Where is e?" (span) The template Q1 is applied to all participants. Q2

will only be present in the training data if Q1 is "yes", and similarly Q3 is only present if Q2 is "yes". These three variations of data are used to train three different models from the same method.

At test time, we cascade the questions (e.g., ask Q2 only if the answer to the Q1 model is "yes"), and combine the model outputs accordingly to answer the questions in our target tasks (Section 5.1).

We also compare against a rule-based baseline and a feature-based baseline. The rule-based method, called ProComp, uses a set of rules that map (a SRL analysis of) each sentence to its effects on the world state, e.g., IF X moves to Y THEN after: at(X,Y). The rules were extracted from Verb-Net (Schuler, 2005) and expanded. A full description of ProComp is available at (Clark et al., 2018) . The feature-based method uses a Logistic Regression (LR) classifier to predict the state change type (Move, Create, etc.) for each participant + sentence pair, then a NER-style CRF model to predict the from/to locations as spans of the sentence. The LR model uses bag-of-word features from the sentence, along with a discrete feature indicating whether the participant occurs before or after the verb in the given sentence. The CRF model uses standard NER features including capitalization, a verb indicator, the previous 3 words, and the POS-tag of the current and previous word. Similar to our ProLocal model, we apply commonsense persistence rules (Section 4.1.2) to complete the partial state-change grids predicted by both these baselines.

5.3 Results

Parameter settings: Both our models use GloVe embeddings of size 100 pretrained on Wikipedia 2014 and Gigaword 5 corpora 11 . The number of hidden dimensions for the biLSTM are set to 50(ProLocal) and 100(ProGlobal). Dropout rates (Srivastava et al., 2014) for the contextual encoding layer are 0.3(ProLocal) and 0.2(ProGlobal). ProGlobal uses word position and sentence indicator embeddings each of size 50, and span prediction LSTMs with a hidden dimension of 10. The learning rates for Adadelta optimizer were 0.2(ProLocal) and 0.5(ProGlobal). Our models are trained on the train partition and the parameters tuned on the dev partition. Table 3 compares the performance of various models on the ProPara test partition. For the first category of questions, we also include a simple majority baseline. We aggregate results over the questions in each category, and report both macro and micro averaged accuracy scores.

Table 3: Model accuracy on the end task (test partition of ProPara). Questions are (Section 5.1): (Cat-1) Is ei created (destroyed, moved)? (Cat-2) When is ei created (...)? (Cat-3) Where is ei created (...)?

From Table 3 , we can see that EntNet and QRN perform comparably when applied to ProPara. However, despite being the top-performing systems for the bAbI task, when predicting whether a participant entity is created, destroyed or moved, their predictions are only slightly better than the majority baseline. Compared to our local model ProLocal, EntNet and QRN are worse in predicting the exact step where a participant is created, destroyed or moved, but better in predicting the location. The weak performance of EntNet and QRN on ProPara is understandable: both systems were designed with a different environment in mind, namely a large number of examples from a few conceptual domains (e.g., moving objects around a house), covering a limited vocabulary. As a result, they might not scale well when applied to real procedural text, which justifies the importance of having a real challenge dataset like ProPara.

Although the rule-based baseline (Clark et al., 2018) uses rules mapping SRL patterns to state changes, its performance appears limited by the incompleteness and approximations in the rulebase, and by errors by the SRL parser. The feature-based baseline performs slightly better, but its performance is still poor compared to our neural models. This suggests that it has not generalized as well to unseen vocabulary (25% of the test vocabulary is not present in the train/dev partitions of ProPara).

When comparing our two models, it is interesting that ProGlobal performs substantially better than ProLocal. One possible cause of this is cascading errors in ProLocal: if a local state predic-tion is wrong, it may still be propagated to later time steps without any potential for correction, thus amplifying the error. In contrast, ProGlobal makes a state decision for every participant entity at every time-step, taking the global context into account, and thus appears more robust to cascading errors. Furthermore, ProGlobal's gains are mainly in Cat-2 and Cat-3 predictions, which rely more heavily on out-of-sentence cues. For example, 30% of the time the end-location is not explicitly stated in the state-change sentence, meaning ProLocal cannot predict the end-location in these cases (as no sentence span contains the end location). ProGlobal, however, uses the entire paragraph and may identify a likely end-location from earlier sentences.

Finally, we computed a human upper bound for this task (last column of Table 3 ). During dataset creation, each grid was fully annotated by 5 different Turkers (Section 3). Here, for each grid, we identify the Turker whose annotations result in the best score for the end task with respect to the other Turkers' annotations. The observed upper bound of ∼80% suggests that the task is both feasible and well-defined, and that there is still substantial room for creating better models.

5.4 Analysis

To further understand the strengths and weaknesses of our systems, we ran the simplified paragraph in Figure 2 verbatim through the models learned by ProLocal and ProGlobal. The results are shown in Figure 6 , with errors highlighted in red.