Go To:

Paper Title Paper Authors Table Of Contents Abstract References
Home
Report a problem with this paper

Looking Beyond Text: Extracting Figures, Tables and Captions from Computer Science Papers

Authors

Abstract

Identifying and extracting figures and tables along with their captions from scholarly articles is important both as a way of providing tools for article summarization, and as part of larger systems that seek to gain deeper, semantic understanding of these articles. While many "off-the-shelf" tools exist that can extract embedded images from these documents, e.g. PDFBox, Poppler, etc., these tools are unable to extract tables, captions, and figures composed of vector graphics. Our proposed approach analyzes the structure of individual pages of a document by detecting chunks of body text, and locates the areas wherein figures or tables could reside by reasoning about the empty regions within that text. This method can extract a wide variety of figures because it does not make strong assumptions about the format of the figures embedded in the document, as long as they can be differentiated from the main article's text. Our algorithm also demonstrates a caption-to-figure matching component that is effective even in cases where individual captions are adjacent to multiple figures. Our contribution also includes methods for leveraging particular consistency and formatting assumptions to identify titles, body text and captions within each article. We introduce a new dataset of 150 computer science papers along with ground truth labels for the locations of the figures, tables and captions within them. Our algorithm achieves 96% precision at 92% recall when tested against this dataset, surpassing previous state of the art. We release our dataset, code, and evaluation scripts on our project website for enabling future research.

1 Introduction

Mining knowledge from documents is a commonly pursued goal, but these efforts have primarily been focused on understanding text. Text mining is, however, an inherently limited approach since figures 1 often contain a crucial part of the information scholarly documents convey. Authors frequently use figures to compare their work to previous work, to convey the quantitative results of their experiments, or to provide visual aids to help readers understand their methods. For example, in the computer science literature it is often the case that authors report their final results in a table or line plot that compares their algorithm's performance against a baseline or previous work. Retrieving this crucial bit of information requires parsing the relevant figure, making purely text based approaches to understanding the content of such documents inevitably incomplete. Additionally, figures are powerful summarization tools. Readers can often get the gist of a paper by glancing through the figures which frequently contain both experimental results and explanatory diagrams of the paper's method. Detecting the associated caption of the figures along with their mentions throughout the rest of the text is an important component of this task. Captions and mentions help provide users with explanations of the graphics found and, for systems that seek to mine semantic knowledge from documents, captions and mentions can help upstream components determine what the extracted figures represent and how they should be interpretted.

Extracting figures requires addressing a few important challenges. First, our system should be ambivalent to the content of the figures in question, which means it should be able to extract figures even if they have heavy textual components, or are entirely composed of text. Therefore our algorithm needs to be highly effective at deciding when text is part of a figure or part of the body text. Second, we need to avoid extracting images that are not relevant (such as logos, mathematical symbols, or lines that are part of the paper's format), and to group individual graphical and textual elements together so they can all be associated as being part of the same figure. Finally, we seek to both identify captions and correctly assign figures and tables to the correct caption. Neither of these tasks is trivial due to the wide variety of ways captions can be formatted and the fact that individual captions can be adjacent to multiple figures making it ambiguous which figure they are referring to.

Our work demonstrates how these challenges can be overcome by taking advantage of prior knowledge of how scholarly documents are laid out. We introduce a number of novel techniques, including i) a method of removing false positives when detecting captions by leveraging a consistency assumption, ii) heuristics that are effective at separating body text and image text, and iii) the insight that a strong source of signal for detecting figures is the location of 'negative space' within the body text of a document. Unlike most previous work in this field, our system is equally effective at both table and figure detection.

Our system (pdffigures) takes as input scholarly documents in PDF form 2 . It outputs, for each figure, the bounding box of that figure's caption and a bounding box around the region of the page that contains all elements that caption refers to. Additionally we expect the correct identifier of the figure to be returned (for example, "Table 1" or "Figure 1") so that mentions of that figure can be mined from the rest of the text. Previous work on figure extraction has focused on documents from the biomedical (Lopez and others 2011) , chemistry (Choudhury and others 2013) or high energy physics (Praczyk and Nogueras-Iso 2013) literature. In this work we study the problem of figure extraction for the domain of computer science papers. Towards this end we release a new dataset, annotated with ground truth bounding boxes, for this domain.

Figure 1: A scholarly document (left, page from (Chan and Airoldi 2014)), and the same document with body text masked with filled boxes, captions masked with empty boxes, and tables and figures removed (right). By examining the right image it is easy to guess which regions of the page each caption refers to, even without knowing the text, what the captions say, and anything about the graphical elements on the page.
Table 1: Precision and recall on figure extraction.

2 Background

At a high level, PDF files can be viewed as a series of operators which draw individual elements of the document. These operators can include text operators, which draw characters at particular coordinates with particular fonts and styles, vector graphic operators that draw lines or shapes, or image operators that draw embedded image files stored internally within the PDF. Within a document, a figure can either be encoded as an embedded image, or a number of embedded images arranged side-by-side, or as a combination of vector graphics and text, or a mix of all three. In more recent computer science documents most plots and flow charts are composed of vector graphics. While many "off-the-shelf" tools exist that can extract embedded images from PDFs, such as PDFBox 3 or Poppler (Poppler 2014) , these tools do not extract vector graphic based images. Additionally, such tools leave the problem of caption association unsolved and are liable to extract unwanted images such as logos or mathematical symbols. Image segmentation tools such as the ones found in Tesseract (Smith 2007) or Leptonica 4 are also inadequate. Such tools frequently misclassify regions of the document that contain very text heavy figures as being text, or misclassify bits of text as being images if that text is near graphical elements or contains mathematical symbols.

Figure extraction has been a topic of recent research interest. In (Choudhury and others 2013) captions were extracted using regular expressions followed by classification using font and textual features. We build upon this idea by additionally leveraging a consistency assumption, that all figures and tables within a paper will be labelled with the same style, to prune out false positives. Their system also extracts figures by detecting images embedded in the PDF, however it does not handle vector graphics. Work done by (Lopez and others 2011) identified captions through regular expression followed by clustering the resulting figure mentions. Graphical elements were then clustered by parsing the PDF files and analyzing the individual operators to find figures. While their approach reached 96% accuracy on articles from the biomedical domain their method does not handle figures composed of combinations of image operators and text operators, which is prevalent in the domain of computer science papers. Work by (Praczyk and Nogueras-Iso 2013) similarly detects figures and captions by merging nearby graphical and textual elements while heuristically filtering out irrelevant elements found in the document. Their approach is similar to ours in that an attempt is made to classify text as being body text or as part of a figure to allow the extraction of text heavy figures. However, their algorithm requires making the Figure 1 : A scholarly document (left, page from (Chan and Airoldi 2014)), and the same document with body text masked with filled boxes, captions masked with empty boxes, and tables and figures removed (right). By examining the right image it is easy to guess which regions of the page each caption refers to, even without knowing the text, what the captions say, and anything about the graphical elements on the page. assumption that figures, while possibly containing text, contain at least some non-trivial graphical elements to 'seed' clusters of elements that compose figures. Our work avoids making this assumption and can thus handle a greater variety of figures, as well as generalize easily to tables. Our work also addresses the problems the can arise when captions are adjacent to multiple figures or multiple figures are adjacent to each other.

Extracting tables has also been addressed as a separate task of great interest in the information extraction community. Our work is not directly comparable since the system presented here locates tables but does not attempt to organize their text into cells in order to fully reconstruct them. Nevertheless locating tables within documents is a non-trivial part of this research problem. Most approaches use carefully built heuristics based on detecting columns of text, vertical and horizontal lines, or white space. A survey can be found at (Zanibbi, Blostein, and Cordy 2004) or in the results of a recent competition (Khusro, Latif, and Ullah 2014) . Our work shows that table detection can be completed without relying on hand crafted templates or detailed table detection heuristics by exploiting more general assumptions about the format of the documents being parsed.

A number of search engines for scholarly articles have made attempts to integrate table and figure information. CiteSeerX (Wu and others 2014) extracts and indexes tables in order to allow users to search them, but does not handle figures. The Yale Image Finder (Xu, McCusker, and Krauthammer 2008) allows users to search a large database of figures, but does not automatically extract these figures from documents.

3 Approach

Our algorithm leverages a simple but important observation that if a region of the page does not contain body text and is adjacent to a caption, it is very likely to contain the figure being referred to by that caption. Figure 1 illustrates how effective this concept can be; much of the time a human reader can locate regions containing figures within a page of a scholarly document even if all that is known is the locations of the captions and body text. This observation stems from our knowledge of how scholarly documents are typically formatted. Authors present information in a continuous flow across the document and so do not include extraneous elements or unneeded whitespace. Therefore regions in the document that do not contain body text must contain something else of importance, almost certainly a figure. A particular motivation for our approach is that figures in scholarly documents are the least structured elements in the document and thus the trickiest to parse effectively. Graphics can have large amounts of text, large amounts of white space, be composed of many separate elements, or otherwise contain content that is hard to anticipate. Tables can be formatted in grids, with only vertical lines, with no lines at all, or in many other variations. However most academic venues have strict guidelines on how body text and section titles should be formatted which tend to follow a narrow set of conventions, such as being left aligned and being in either a one or two column format. Such guidelines make positively identifying body text a much easier task. Once the body text is found, the regions of the document containing figures can be detected without making any assumptions as to the nature of those figures other than that they do not contain any elements that were identified as body text.

Our proposed algorithm has three phases: 1. Caption start identification. This step involves parsing the text of the document to find words like ' Figure 1 :' or 'Table 1.' that indicate the start of a caption, while taking steps to avoid false positives. The scope of this phase is limited to identifying the first word of the caption, not the entire caption itself. 2. Region identification. This involves chunking the text in the PDF into blocks, then identifying which blocks of text are captions, body text, or part of a figure. This step also attempts to identify regions containing graphical components. The output is a number of bounding boxes labelled as body text, image text, caption text, or graphic region. 3. Caption assignment. This phase involves assigning, for each caption, the region of space within the document that it refers to, by making use of the regions found in the previous step.

Caption Start Identification

This phase of the algorithm identifies words that mark the beginning of captions within the document. We extract text from documents using Poppler (Poppler 2014 ). This step assumes that the PDFs being used as input have their body text and captions encoded as PDF text operators, not as part of embedded images. This assumption is almost always true for more recent scholarly PDFs, but exceptions exist for some older PDFs, such as those that were created by scanning paper documents 5 .

The extracted text is scanned to find words of the form Figure| Fig|Table followed by either a number, or a period or colon and then a number. These phrases are collected as potential starts of captions. This first pass has high recall, but can also generate false positives. To remove false positives, we look for textual cues in combination with a simple consistency assumption: we assume that authors have labelled their figures in a consistent manner as is required by most academic venues. If we detect redundancy in the phrases found, for example if we find multiple phrases referring to ' Figure 1 ', we attempt to apply a number of filters that selectively remove phrases until we have a unique phrase for each figure mentioned. Filters are only applied if they would leave at least one mention left for each figure number found so far. We have been able to achieve high accuracy using only a handful of filters. Our filters can be noisy, for example selecting bold phrases can, in some papers, filter out the true captions starts while leaving incorrect ones behind. Detecting bold and italic font can itself be challenging because such fonts can be expressed within a PDF in a variety of ways. However we can usually detect when a filter is noisy by noting that a filter would remove all mentions of a particular figure, in which case the filter is not applied and a different filter can be tried to remove the false positives. In general we have found our caption identification system to be highly accurate, but occasionally our consistency assumption is broken which can lead to errors.

Region Identification

Having detected the caption starts, this phase identifies regions of the document that contain body text, caption text, figure text, or graphical elements. The first step in this phase is identifying blocks of continuous text. To do this we use the text grouping algorithm made available in Poppler (Poppler 2014) to find lines of text within each page. Individual lines are then grouped together by drawing the bounding boxes of each line on a bitmap, expanding these boxes by slight margins, and then running a connected component algorithm 6 to group nearby lines together.

Having identified text blocks we need to decide if those blocks are body text, captions, or part of a figure. We identify caption text by finding text blocks that contain one of the previously identified caption starts and labeling those blocks as captions. We have found it useful to post process these blocks by filtering out text that is above the caption word or not aligned well with the rest of the caption text. The remaining blocks are classified as body text or image text. To identify body text we have found an important cue is the page margins. Scholarly articles align body text down to fractions of an inch to the left page margin, while figure text is often allowed to float free from page margins. We locate margins by parsing the text lines throughout the entire document and detecting places where many lines share the same starting x coordinate. Text blocks that are not aligned with the mar- Figure 2 : Classifying regions within a scholarly document. All text in the document (first panel, page from (Neyshabur and others 2013)) is located and grouped into blocks (second panel). Next the graphical components are isolated and used to determine regions of the page that contain graphics (third panel). To build the final output (fourth panel) these two elements are put together and each text block is classified as body text (filled boxes), image text (box outlines), or caption (box outlines).

Figure 2: Classifying regions within a scholarly document. All text in the document (first panel, page from (Neyshabur and others 2013)) is located and grouped into blocks (second panel). Next the graphical components are isolated and used to determine regions of the page that contain graphics (third panel). To build the final output (fourth panel) these two elements are put together and each text block is classified as body text (filled boxes), image text (box outlines), or caption (box outlines).

gins are labelled as figure text. Left aligned blocks of text that are either small, or tall and narrow, are also classified as figure text because they are usually axis labels or columns within tables that happen to be aligned to the margins. Section headers, titles, and page headers are handled as special cases. To detect pages headers we scan the document to determine whether pages are consistently headed by the same phrase (for example, a running title of the paper might start each page) and if so label those phrases as body text. A similar procedure is used to detect if the pages are numbered and, if so, classify the page numbers found as body text. Section headers are detected by looking for text that is bold, and either column centered or aligned to a margin.

This phase also identifies regions containing graphical elements. To this end, we render the PDF using a customized renderer that ignores all text commands. We then filter out graphics that are contained or nearly contained by a body text region in order to remove lines and symbols that were used as part of a text section. Finally we use the bounding boxes of the connected components of the remaining elements to denote image regions. Figure 2 shows the steps that make up this entire process.

Figure Assignment

Figure 3: Example of a figure and table being directly adjacent (left panel, from (Liu, He, and Chang 2010)). In this case the proposed figure regions for each caption will by identical and encompass both the plot and table (right, solid lines). We handle this case by detecting that the region is divided in the middle by a section of whitespace, and then splitting the proposed figure region across that whitespace (dashed line).